Machupicchu OM MACHU PICCHU Cusco Peru Tours Cuzco Travel and Tours Machu Picchu – Fin din beste spirituale reise til Cusco .

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Om Peru
Information about Peru:
Name: Republic of Peru
Capital City: Lima, founded in 1535 by Francisco Pizarro
Historic Capital: Cusco, the oldest living city in the American Continent with a continuous occupation of more than 3000 years; it was the capital of the Inca Empire.
Location: Midwestern South America
Area: 1'285,215 sq. km. (496,221 sq. mile)
Borders: North: Ecuador and Colombia. East: Brazil and Bolivia. South: Chile. West: Pacific Ocean
Coastline: 2,997 Km
Natural Regions: Coast 10%, Andean Mountains 30%, Amazonian Jungle 60%
National Population: 24 million (July 1995)
Main Cities (population estimates to 1993): Lima (6.5 million people), Arequipa (635,000), Trujillo (515,000), Chiclayo (425,000), Iquitos (285,000), Piura (281,000), Huancayo (267,000), Cusco (263,000), Pucallpa (179,000)
Age Structure: 0-19 years: 48%, 20-39 years: 31%, 40-64 years: 17%, Over 65: 4%
Population Growth Rate: 2.1%
Birth Rate: 2.7%
Infant Mortality Rate: 5.2%
Life Expectancy: male: 63 years, female: 68 years, average: 65.5 years
Fertility Rate: 3.5 children per woman
Languages: Spanish and Quechua are official languages. Aymara is also spoken in the Puno area. In the Amazonian Jungle there are many different peoples that speak diverse tongues.
Religion: about 90% is Roman Catholic
Illiteracy: about 10% of the adult population
Independence Day (from Spain): July 28, 1821
National Holiday: July 28th
Government: Democratic (with elections every 5 years)
Constitution: December 31 1993.
Government Branches: Executive (headed by the President). Legislative (unicameral). Judicial (Supreme Court of Justice)
Currency: Nuevo Sol (S/.) = 100 centimos
Agriculture: Farming in Peru is an important activity since immemorial times. About 35% of its current population is devoted to agriculture. The crops grown are different according to the regions; thus the most important crops according to their volume of production are sugarcane, potatoes, rice, corn, cotton, coffee and wheat. Most of the agriculture developed in the Andean Mountains is for self sustenance of farmers, because their farms are small due to the difficult topography. Peru is also the world's largest producer of coca leaves that are grown in the higher Amazonian Jungle (from 800 to 1800 meters above sea level)
Mining
: The natural resources found over here are really significant. Among the most important for the Peruvian economy are copper, silver, lead, zinc, petroleum, natural gas, iron, molybdenum, tungsten, gold, etc.
Communications: Peru has all kind of modern communications including telephone, telex, fax, and Internet. In most major cities there are even public boots where for a monthly fee you can get Internet access if not carrying your computer. Transportation: The Andes Mountains are always a big obstacle for developing a good road system in the country, however most of the major cities are interconnected by paved roads. Peru has also many important ports along its coast and over the Amazon River. There is also a railroad system with diesel machines connecting important cities in central and southern Peru. Besides, from Cusco you have to take the train that uses a narrow gauge railway if willing to visit Machupicchu (it is the only way how to get it). The train from Cusco to Puno is one of the most picturesque in South America. Planes are the easiest way to get Peru and for traveling between major cities; there are 3 international airports (Lima, Iquitos, Cusco)
Electricity: 220 V, 60 Hz
Time: 5 hours behind GMT
History: The first Peruvians known to this date lived about 18 to 20 thousand years ago around Ayacucho in central Peru. Agriculture was first developed about 12,000 years ago by the southern coast of the country. Since that remote time there were many different civilizations developed all over the Peruvian territory, among them are: Chavin, Nazca, Paracas, Mochica, Chimu, Wari, Tiahuanaco. By 1200 AC. Manko Qhapaq began with one of the brightest old civilizations of the world: the Inkas. Their capital was in Cusco and after some centuries they spread their territory covering a large part of what today is Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Chile, and the northern part of Argentina. The Inkas represented the best of the cultural advances got by the older civilizations. They took and enhanced all the cultural elements created in South America until that time; thus they developed their famous architecture with stone walls so finely fitted that it is practically "impossible to slip even a razor blade in their joints". The agriculture developed by our ancient civilizations was really advanced, so they inherited for mankind about 60% of the edible vegetable goods eaten today in the world, among which are the potatoes and corn (maize). The Inkas were a highly organized society, very special and advanced for its time in which there was no starvation; they also had a kind of social security system by which the government took care of the elderly people, handicapped, widows, orphans, etc. They are also very famous because of the gold and silver they had for personal use and adorning their temples; those precious metals had only a religious value over here and not an economic one as in Europe. The Europeans were first seen in the Peruvian coast in 1532. Not so long before that time a civil war began in the Inkan Society: Huascar was the ruling Inka (King) in Cusco but his step brother Atahuallpa made himself crown as the new Inka in Quito (present day Ecuador) willing to overthrow his step brother and usurp the throne. Francisco Pizarro, chief of the Spanish conquerors captured Atawallpa in Cajamarca. That Inka offered a ransom for his freedom: 1 full room of gold and 2 rooms of silver. The precious metals were raised from all over the empire, specially from Cusco and taken to Cajamarca (where the Inka was held); but the Spaniards killed Atawallpa little before he could fully pay his ransom. Peru got its independence from Spain on July 28, 1821 after a long and bloody war developed all over South America. Since that time there were many different governments among military dictators and democratic ones. Beginning by the 1980s Peru was shocked with the appearance of two terrorist groups: the maoist Shining Path and the Revolutionary Movement Tupac Amaru. By the end of the 90s most of the leaders of those terrorist groups are in jail and their activities decreased considerably. Politically and economically Peru is getting more and more stable, thus it is becoming a more and more preferred destination for tourists from all over the world.
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